Introduction


 

Sports in India : past, present and future

There are a number of popular sports in India but cricket is the most popular. The country also has won eight Olympic gold medals in field hockey. India has hosted and co-hosted several international sporting events, including the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games, the 1987, 1996 and 2011 Cricket World Cup, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2010 Hockey World Cup and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events annually held in India include the Chennai Open, Mumbai Marathon, Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. In 2011, India hosted its first Indian Grand Prix at the Buddh International Circuit, an Indian motor racing circuit in Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

The National Games of India is a national domestic sports event, which has been held in the country since 1924. India also is home to cricket's Indian Premier League (IPL), launched in 2008. According to Forbes magazine, IPL is the second-richest sports league after the NBA.

History

Following is a list of international sports events held in India:

Sport

Event Name

Year/Date

Venue

Multi-sport event

Asian Games logo.svgAsian Games

1951

New Delhi

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Field Hockey World Cup

1982

Bombay

Multi-sport event

Asian Games logo.svgAsian Games

1982

New Delhi

Cricket pictogram.svgCricket

Cricket World Cup

1987

Multiple Venues

Multi-sport event

South Asian Games

1987

Calcutta

Cricket pictogram.svgCricket

Cricket World Cup

1996

Multiple Venues

Multi-sport event

Afro-Asian Games

2003

Hyderabad

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Men's Hockey Champions Trophy

2007

Chennai

Football pictogram.svgFootball

AFC Challenge Cup

2008

New Delhi

Multi-sport event

Commonwealth Youth Games

2008

Pune

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Field Hockey World Cup

2010

New Delhi

Multi-sport event

Commonwealth Games

2010

Delhi

Cricket pictogram.svgCricket

Cricket World Cup

2011

Multiple Venues

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Men's Hockey Champions Trophy

2011 (Withdrew by FIH)

New Delhi

Multi-sport event

South Asian Winter Games

2011

Dehradun and Auli

Motor sports

F1 logo.svgFormula One (2011 season)

Indian Grand Prix (30th October 2011)

Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Olympic Rings.svgOlympic Field Hockey Qualification

2012 Summer Olympics (London)
Qualification Tournament 1

New Delhi

Motor sports

F1 logo.svgFormula One (2012 season)

Indian Grand Prix (28th October 2012)

Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida

Cricket pictogram.svgCricket

Women's Cricket World Cup

2013

Multiple Venues

Multi-sport event

South Asian Games

2013

Delhi

Field hockey pictogram.svgField Hockey

FIH Men's Hockey World League (2012-14 season)

2013 Round 2 (Delhi leg)

New Delhi

FIH Women's Hockey World League (2012-14 season)

2013 Round 2 (Delhi leg)

Motor sports

F1 logo.svgFormula One (2013 season)

Indian Grand Prix (27th October 2013)

Buddh International Circuit, Greater Noida

WorldSBKlogo.pngSuperbike World Championship

17th November 2013

Field hockey pictogram.svgField Hockey

Men's Hockey Champions Trophy

2014

TBA

FIH Men's Hockey World League (2012-14 season)

2014 Round 4 (Final round)

New Delhi

Multi-sport event

Lusophony Games

2014

Goa

Before independence

The history of sports in India dates back to the Vedic era. Physical culture in ancient India was fuelled by religious rights.

The mantra in the Atharvaveda, says, "Duty is in my right hand and the fruits of victory in my left." In terms of an ideal, these words hold the same sentiments as the traditional Olympic Oath: "For the Honour of my Country and the Glory of Sport."

Badminton probably originated in India as a grownup's version of a very old children's game known in England as Battledore and Shuttlecock, the battledore being a paddle and the shuttlecock a small feathered cork, now usually called a "bird."

Games like chess, snakes and ladders, playing cards, and polo originated in India, and it was from here that these games were transmitted to foreign countries, where they were further modernised.

After independence

After the IX Asian Games in New Delhi in 1982, the capital city now has modern sports facilities. Such facilities are also being developed in other parts of the country. Besides sports and games included in the international sporting agenda, there are many which have developed indigenously. Among these are wrestling and several traditional systems of martial arts. The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports was initially set up as the Department of Sports in 1982 at the time of organisation of the IX Asian Games in New Delhi. Its name was changed to the Department of Youth Affairs & Sports during celebration of the International Youth Year in 1985.

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events, including the 1951 and the 1982 Asian Games, the 1987 and 1996 Cricket World Cup, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2010 Hockey World Cup, and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events annually held in India include the Chennai Open, Mumbai Marathon, Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The country hosted the 2011 Cricket World Cup and the first Indian Grand Prix in 2011.

Administration and funding

Political responsibility for sport in India is with the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, which is headed by a cabinet minister and managed by National Sport Federations. Sports Authority of India, the field arm of the Ministry, supports and nurtures talent in youth, and provides them with requisite infrastructure, equipment, coaching facilities and competition exposure. Dorabji Tata, with the support of Dr. A.G. Noehren, then director of YMCA, established the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) in 1927. IOA is responsible for the Indian continent's participation in the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games (outdoor, indoor and beach), and South Asian Games. Each Olympic and non-Olympic sport has a federation at the national level.

The selection of the national teams is done by the respective national federations and then recommend to IOA for official sponsorship for participation in the games conducted under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee, Olympic Council of Asia, Commonwealth Games Federation, and SAG. A special feature of the Indian Olympic Association is that the National Federations and the State Olympic Associations are affiliated with and recognised by it. The main task of the State Olympic Associations is to promote the Olympic sport and to ensure co-ordination among the State Sports Associations. In 2010-11, the total budget for sports and physical education schemes is 31176.9 million (US$530 million). Hockey, in which India has an impressive record with eight Olympic gold medals, is said to be the national sport (unclear source). The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are India's highest awards for achievement in sports, while the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.

India has been criticised for neglecting women in sports, as depicted in the film "Chak De! India", where women's sports associations are under-sponsored and out of funds.

India at the Olympics

File:Indian-Hockey-Team-Berlin-1936.jpgThe Indian Hockey team at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, later going on to defeat Germany 8–1 in the final.

India first participated at the Olympic Games in 1900, with an athlete (Norman Pritchard) winning two medals in athletics. The nation first sent a team to the Summer Olympic Games in 1920, and has participated in every Summer Olympic Games ever since. India has also competed at several Winter Olympic Games since 1964. India has won a total of 20 Olympic medals. India won its first gold medal in men's field hockey in the 1928 Olympic Games. Abhinav Bindra became the first Indian to win an individual gold medal at the Olympic Games, and India's first gold medal since 1980, when the men's field hockey team won the gold.

India is remarkable among nations for having won very few Olympic medals, despite a population exceeding one billion, around half of them under the age of 25. Numerous explanations have been offered for the dearth, including poverty, malnutrition, widespread vegetarianism, neglected infrastructure, the lack of sponsorship, the theft of money and equipment, political corruption, institutional disorganisation, social immobility, the predominance of cricket, and other cultural factors.

According to several informal statistics, India is the country with the lowest number of total Olympic medals per capita (out of those countries which have won at least one medal).

In the Winter Olympic Games, India has seen four consecutive representations–Nagano (Japan, 1998), Salt Lake City (Utah, USA, 2002), Turin (Italy, 2006), and Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada, 2010) through Shiva Keshavan, who is the current Asian Champion in luge.

Medalists

Games

Medal

Name

Sport

Event

1900 Paris

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Silver_medal_icon.svg/16px-Silver_medal_icon.svg.png Silver

Norman Pritchard*

Athletics pictogram.svgAthletics

Men's 200 metres

Men's 200-metre hurdles

1928 Amsterdam

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

National team

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Men's competition

1932 Los Angeles

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1936 Berlin

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1948 London

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1952 Helsinki

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

National team

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Men's competition

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Bronze_medal_icon.svg/16px-Bronze_medal_icon.svg.png Bronze

Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav

Wrestling pictogram.svgWrestling

Bantamweight

1956 Melbourne

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

National team

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

Men's competition

1960 Rome

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Silver_medal_icon.svg/16px-Silver_medal_icon.svg.png Silver

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1964 Tokyo

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1968 Mexico

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Bronze_medal_icon.svg/16px-Bronze_medal_icon.svg.png Bronze

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1972 Munich

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Bronze_medal_icon.svg/16px-Bronze_medal_icon.svg.png Bronze

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1980 Moscow

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

Field hockey pictogram.svgField hockey

1996 Atlanta

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Bronze_medal_icon.svg/16px-Bronze_medal_icon.svg.png Bronze

Leander Paes

Tennis pictogram.svgTennis

Men's singles

2000 Sydney

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Bronze_medal_icon.svg/16px-Bronze_medal_icon.svg.png Bronze

Karnam Malleswari

Weightlifting pictogram.svgWeightlifting

Women's 69 kg

2004 Athens

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Silver_medal_icon.svg/16px-Silver_medal_icon.svg.png Silver

Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore

Shooting pictogram.svgShooting

Men's double trap

2008 Beijing

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/47/Gold_medal_icon.svg/16px-Gold_medal_icon.svg.png Gold

Abhinav Bindra

Shooting pictogram.svgShooting

Men's 10m air rifle

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Bronze_medal_icon.svg/16px-Bronze_medal_icon.svg.png Bronze

Sushil Kumar

Wrestling pictogram.svgWrestling

Men's 66 kg freestyle

Vijender Singh

Boxing pictogram.svgBoxing

Men's 75 kg

2012 London

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Silver_medal_icon.svg/16px-Silver_medal_icon.svg.png Silver

Vijay Kumar

Shooting pictogram.svgShooting

Men's 10m air rifle

Sushil Kumar

Wrestling pictogram.svgWrestling

Wrestling Men's freestyle 66 kg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Bronze_medal_icon.svg/16px-Bronze_medal_icon.svg.png Bronze

Gagan Narang

Shooting pictogram.svgShooting

Men's 25-metre rapid fire pistol

Saina Nehwal

Badminton pictogram.svgBadminton

Women's singles

Chungneijang Mery Kom Hmangte

Boxing pictogram.svgBoxing

Boxing Women's Flyweight (51kg)

Yogeshwar Dutt

Wrestling pictogram.svgWrestling

Wrestling Men's freestyle 60 kg

* IOC regards this medal as credited to India, but the international committees credit it to Great Britain.

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